سلام!
تو این پست نحوه شمارش اعداد انگلیسی و قوانین نگارش اونا رو گذاشتم.من که وقتی خوندمش فهمیدم خیلی چیزا رو بلد نیستم و اونایی که بلدم ,ناقصند!مطمعنم واسه شما هم مفیده.این پستو به درخواست یکی از همکلاسی هامون گذاشتم.اگه مشتاق بودید در این مورد بیشتر بدونین,تو بخش نظرها مطرح کنیدد که واستون متن کاملشو بذارم.در آخر نظر یادتون نره!
You can count as high as you want. All you need to know some words, some prefixes and a few rules.
Most English speakers are able to count up to 999999999 (10^{9}-1) using the just 31 words
They can string them together to name a number such as 987654321:
nine hundred eighty seven million,
six hundred fifty four thousand,
three hundred twenty one
short system name |
American |
European |
British |
1 (10^{0}) |
one |
one |
one |
1000 (10^{3}) |
one thousand |
one thousand |
one thousand |
1000000 (10^{6}) |
one million |
one million |
one million |
1000000000 (10^{9}) |
one billion |
one millard |
one thousand million |
1000000000000 (10^{12}) |
one trillion |
one billion |
one billion |
1000000000000000 (10^{15}) |
one quadrillion |
one billiard |
one thousand billion |
1000000000000000000 (10^{18}) |
one quintillion |
one trillion |
one trillion |
The name one milliard is almost never seen in the USA and is rarely seen in the UK except in older documents. However it is frequently seen in Continental Europe
Using one billion for 1000000000 (10^{9}) has been common in the US for some time. In 1974, Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced in the House of Commons that the official meaning of one billion would change to 1000000000 (10^{9}) in conformity with usage in the US
Prior to 1974, one billion in the UK was sometimes referred to 10^{9} and sometimes 10^{12}. Many English speaking peoples of the Commonwealth equate one billion with 10^{12}
Starting to count
With the following 31 words, we able to count up to 999999999:
zero
one two three four five six seven eight nine
ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen
twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety hundred
thousand million
We can string them together to name a number such as 987654321:
nine hundred eighty seven million,
six hundred fifty four thousand,
three hundred twenty one
Medium size numbers < 10^{63}
To form names of numbers up to 10^{63}-1, one needs the following:
zero
one two three four five six seven eight nine
ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen
twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety hundred
thousand million
in addition to the following names:
short system name |
American |
European |
British |
10^{9} = 1000^{3} |
billion |
milliard |
thousand milliard |
10^{12} = 1000^{4} |
trillion |
billion |
billion |
10^{15} = 1000^{5} |
quadrillion |
billiard |
thousand billion |
10^{18} = 1000^{6} |
quintillion |
trillion |
trillion |
10^{21} = 1000^{7} |
sextillion |
trilliard |
thousand trillion |
10^{24} = 1000^{8} |
septillion |
quadrillion |
quadrillion |
10^{27} = 1000^{9} |
octillion |
quadrilliard |
thousand quadrillion |
10^{30} = 1000^{10} |
nonillion |
quintillion |
quintillion |
10^{33} = 1000^{11} |
decillion |
quintilliard |
thousand quintillion |
10^{36} = 1000^{12} |
undecillion |
sextillion |
sextillion |
10^{39} = 1000^{13} |
duodecillion |
sextilliard |
thousand sextillion |
10^{42} = 1000^{14} |
tredecillion |
septillion |
septillion |
10^{45} = 1000^{15} |
quattuordecillion |
septilliard |
thousand septillion |
10^{48} = 1000^{16} |
quindecillion |
octillion |
octillion |
10^{51} = 1000^{17} |
sexdecillion |
octilliard |
thousand octillion |
10^{54} = 1000^{18} |
septendecillion |
nonillion |
nonillion |
10^{57} = 1000^{19} |
octodecillion |
nonilliard |
thousand nonillion |
10^{60} = 1000^{20} |
novemdecillion |
decillion |
decillion |
10^{63} = 1000^{21} |
vigintillion |
decilliard |
thousand decillion |
Regarding regional English language variations
There exist many of variations of the names of numbers in the English language. Examples include this such as "zero" vs. "naught", "thousand million" vs. "millard", "one thousand two hundred" vs. "twelve hundred", "two hundred and forty" vs. "two hundred forty", etc. English is a multifaceted language. English spelling and grammar of New Zealand, Canada, Australia, U.K., U.S.A., just to name a few places will differ. Even the output of digits can differ among English speaking countries. For example: 123,456.789 vs. 123 456.789
Numbers in Text
As a general rule, spell out numbers from 0 to 10, and use numerals to express numbers 11 and greater
She and her three cousins sent out 125 Christmas cards
However, always use numerals to express numbers used with fractions, numbers followed by units of measurement, money amounts, dates, percentages, and decimals
Consistent Treatment of Like Numbers
If a list includes numbers greater than and less than 11, express all numbers in the list as numerals
Incorrect: The box contains four books, 14 folders, two staplers, and 23 pencils.
Correct: The box contains 4 books, 14 folders, 2 staplers, and 23 pencils
Numbers at the Beginning of a Sentence
Always spell out a number at the beginning of a sentence. If the number is unwieldy when expressed in words, rephrase the sentence so that the number appears in the middle or at the end
Incorrect: 1,457 people attended the concert.
Acceptable: One thousand four hundred and fifty-seven people attended the concert.
Better: The concert was attended by 1,457 people
Commas in Numbers
If a number has five or more digits, insert a comma after every three digits, counting from the right
Incorrect: 10650; 5188990
Correct: 10,650; 5,188,900
However, do not use commas in numbers of four digits, street numbers, temperatures, telephone numbers, or ZIP codes
Ordinal Numbers
Add the suffixes nd, rd, and th to numerals greater than ten to create their ordinal form.
Julie placed 12th; James, 23rd; and Patricia, 32nd
Millions, Billions, Etc
In text, express rounded numbers greater than 1 million with a numeral followed by a word such as million or billion.
Incorrect: Of the nearly 23,000,000 people in the country, only 4,567,988 live in cities
Correct: Of the nearly 23 million people in the country, only 4,567,988 live in cities
Ranges of Numbers
Use the preposition pair from…to to express a range of numbers if the range includes the numbers cited. Use between…and if the range does not include them
Pick a whole number from 11 to 14. [meaning 11, 12, 13, and 14]I
Pick a whole number between 11 and 14. [meaning 12 and 13]I
You may also use an en dash in place of the word to to indicate a range. If you use an en dash, however, do not add the word from in front of the first number
Incorrect: the pages from 118–276
Correct: the pages from 118 to 276
Or: the pages 118–276
By www.isthe.com and Microsoft Encarta 2008